Conjonctions de coordination et de subordination

Voici l’ensemble du sujet des conjonctions de coordination et de subordination, avec les exemples :

LES CONJONCTIONS DE COORDINATION

Il y a celles que vous connaissez déjà : But = mais / Or = ou / And = et / So = donc

et celles, un peu plus spécifiques, pour lesquelles voici quelques exemples :

As well as … (ainsi que) – He took his belongings as well as those of her friend

But then (en revanche) – She is very clever, but then too proud for me

Either… or… (soit …, soit …) – You can choose either the black or the white cat

Neither… nor… (ni … ni …) – John is neither polite nor well-mannered !

Now (or) – He broke the glass; now it’s not the first time

For (car) – She was ill, for she had eaten too much

LES CONJONCTIONS DE SUBORDINATION

+ INDICATIF / SHOULD / MIGHT / COULD OU AUTRE SI CONTEXTE PARTICULIER OU CONCORDANCE DES TEMPS

En rouge, vous trouverez les différents types de conjonctions (but, cause, conséquence, etc.)

But

In order that / to (dans le but que ou de) / so that (de façon à ce que) – She met him in order to know him better / She left home in order that he could be alone / He will leave earlier this morning so that he can be on time at work

Cause

As (comme, puisque) – As it was already late, we got home at once

Because (parce que) – He left because he didn’t like the show

Since (puisque) – Since you lied, you will be punished

Given that (étant donné que) – This car was a good deal, given that it was in mint condition (en très bon état)

In view of the fact that/On account of the fact that (étant donné que) – In view of the fact that it’s raining, we are going to cancel the party

Considering (that) (étant donné que) – Considering (that) the situation is more serious than expected, we will have to change our strategy

Seeing (that) (vu que, étant donné que, puisque, du moment que) – Seeing (that) we can’t get on time to the venue, it’s useless to go

Conséquence

Then (alors) – You found him; then you can go with him

Yet (pourtant) – It’s late; yet I am not tired at all

Therefore (par conséquent) – You earned a lot of money; therefore you can pay your own clothes now

That’s why (c’est pourquoi) – He is lazy, that’s why he doesn’t like to get up early in the morning

…, so that (…, si bien que) – The lesson ended at eleven a.m., so that he had plenty of time to do what he wanted (to)

…so + adj./adv. that (si + adj./adv. que…) – He was so absent-minded that he forgot to greet her

Meaning that (ce qui implique que, si bien que) – The incident happened during the night, meaning that it was difficult to investigate

Conséquence projetée

Or (ou) – You had better not make trouble, or you will regret it!

Otherwise, or else, or otherwise (sinon, autrement) – I strongly recommend not leaning out of the window, otherwise you could fall down

Opposition

Still (cependant, pourtant, malgré cela) – He was a bit clumsy; still, it’s the thought that counts! (…; malgré cela, c’est l’intention qui compte !)

However (cependant) – He is old; however he does many things on his own

Nevertheless (néanmoins) – He made a mistake; nevertheless he confessed it

However (quelque… que/qu’…) – However old he was, he was very dynamic

Whereas (tandis que) – He was watching television whereas she was reading the newspaper

Although / though / even if or even though (même si, quand bien même) – Although the weather is nice, there isn’t much people outside / Lea is not very tall, she is supple though / Even if I’m not there, you have to respect the rules / Even though Tom likes cat, he doesn’t have any

However + adj (si + adj. que…) – However giflted you might be, you (still) have to go to school

Notwithstanding that (bien que, même si) – You have to come to the meeting notwithstanding that you already know everything

Despite the fact that/In spite of the fact that (malgré le fait que) – He refused to help us despite the fact that/in spite of the fact that it was clearly proven that his help was needed

Without… (sans que…) – I did it without his knowing it (… sans qu’il ne le sache)

Temps (idée de temps)

When (quand) – He arrived when she was leaving [when est aussi adverbe relatif (où, au moment où)]

The instant/moment/minute (that) (aussitôt que, dès que) – The instant that he saw her, he fell in love at once

Whenever (chaque fois que ou dès l’instant que, à partir du moment où, dès lors que) – Whenever he saw her, he couldn’t say a word

Wherever (quel que soit l’endroit où, où que) – Wherever you go, you will have to be cautious

Each/every time (that) (chaque fois que, toutes les fois que) – Each time (that) I entered the attic (grenier), I heard a strange noise

As (au moment où, en même temps que, au fur et à mesure que) – I came in as he was leaving / As the years go by the situation seems to improve (voir aussi cause)

As long as (tant que) – As long as he doesn’t say the truth, you should be careful

As soon as (aussitôt que) – As soon as he arrived, she shouted at him

While/Whilst (pendant que, alors que, tandis que ou tant que) – While he was watching television, she was reading the newspaper

Whereas (tandis que) – He was watching television whereas she was reading the newspaper

After (après que) – After he had arrived, he immediately had a shower

Once (une fois que) – Once he had done what he wanted, we never saw him again

Now that (maintenant que, à présent que, alors que) – Now that you know, you will have to say nothing about it

By the time (that/when) (au moment où, le temps que) – Tom’s son was already an adult by the time we met

Before (avant que) – Before he left, he had had a look at the program

Until (jusqu’à ce que) – They played until they got tired

Since (depuis que) – Since you found a solution, things are easier

No sooner… than… (pas plus tôt que…, à peine… que…) – No sooner had he entered the room than she rushed towards him

Hardly… when… (à peine … que…) – The shop had hardly opened when he had to close again

Eventualité

In case/In the event that (si, au cas où) – In case he comes, I’m ready (au cas où il viendrait, je suis prête)

Renforcement

All the more that (d’autant plus… que…) – It was all the more important that all the people were watching him

Comparaison

As (comme) – As it’s already late, let’s begin now !

As if/As though (comme si) – He was behaving as though nobody could see him (if = possible / though = plus possible)

The less… as… (d’autant moins… que…) – He was the less proud as he had done it on purpose

Condition

As long as (pourvu que) – You can watch TV as long as you don’t do it for the whole night!

Provided that… (pourvu que, à condition que) – I shall pick you up provided that you promise me to be on time

On (the) condition that… (à condition que) – I will attend the meeting on (the) condition that you come too

Supposing that (au cas où, supposant que) – Supposing that the weather is bad, I shall wait for you in the hall of the station

Presuming that…/Assuming that… (en supposant que) – Presuming that they reach their objectives, what are they going to do then?

Restriction

Unless (à moins que, si ne pas) – I won’t do that unless you ask me to do it

Except that (sauf que…, si ce n’est que…) – She might come except that I didn’t tell her (that) there was a party

Alternatives

Whether… or… (soit que… soit que…, si… ou si…) – I won’t choose the same hotel whether I am alone or not / I don’t know whether she will come or not

Crainte

For fear that (de peur que) (+ might or should) – He closed the window for fear that the wind might/should break it

Lest (de peur que) – He closed the window lest the wind might/should break it

Explication ou rajout

Indeed (en effet) – She has been speaking for a long time; indeed she never stops speaking

That’s to say (c’est-à-dire) – It’s very far from here, that’s to say you have to walk (for) two hours before you get there

In that… (en ce que…/en ceci que…) – He is different from his brother in that he is more intellectual

Inasmuch as/Insofar as (dans la mesure où, en ce sens que) – He was very courageous inasmuch/insofar as he tried hard

In the sense that (dans le sens où, en ce sens que, dans la mesure où) – He was very courageous in the sense that he tried hard

Not that… (ce n’est pas que…) – Not that you are not skilled enough, but you should be more patient

Moreover (de plus, …) – He is very tall; moreover it’s a very good-looking man

Interrogation (indirecte)

Whether… or… (si … ou si…) – I don’t know whether it will be nice or not

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